Road Design Construction and Maintenance

Requirements and Specifications
Hazard Identification Risk Assessment and Control
Prior to the design and construction of a road, a risk assessment shall be performed that will give consideration to the following:
• recognition of the expected traffic volume and types of vehicles and mobile equipment that will use the road
• environment (i.e. terrain, nature of resource, pit depth)
• road standard ( i.e. pit life, temporary, permanent, road base to be used)
• expected maintenance requirements
Any risk identified as having a potential to cause a fatal incident shall be controlled before a road design or construction method is approved. All documentations and records relating to risk assessments shall be retained for 3 years. A risk assessment must be performed during the design of all roads in order to identify and control operational hazards and risks. Once identified, risks are assessed, then controls are developed and implemented in order to reduce risks to as low as reasonably practicable.

When performing a risk assessment and identifying requirements for road design, construction, and maintenance, ensure that the people conducting the identification and assessment have a good understanding of how the road is intended to be used. In some cases using a work team will develop a more comprehensive assessment.
If using a team to conduct the risk assessment ensure the personnel involved:
• Have knowledge of the particular issues under assessment.
• Have relevant experience in the design, construction, maintenance, and repair of roads.
• Are competent to carry out risk assessments.

Risk and Hazard Identification
When identifying potential operational hazards and risks, the following techniques can be useful;
• Group discussion & brainstorming with experienced operators of equipment, supervisors, experienced trainers, and maintenance personnel.
• Have consideration for where, how often, and what type of vehicles and mobile equipment is expected to operate on the road.
• Review past incident history relating to the road conditions.
• Examination of local and overseas experience.
• Examination of relevant legislation.
• Examination of standards and supporting literature.
During the design stage, the identification of hazards and risks must be undertaken. The intended purpose for the road and the physical environment through which the road must travel will determine the focus of the risk assessment. Examples for consideration are provided in Table 1:

Table 1. – Examples of road design risk assessment considerations

The safety of motorists, pedestrians, and construction workers during roadway construction must also be carefully considered by the designer during the development of the risk assessment. The initial risk assessment of road designs should determine if barricades or channelling devices need to be included in the road design plans during the construction phase. A complete roadside hazard review may be beneficial. This will provide information regarding areas of potential concern relating to safety.

Risk Assessment
You will now have a list of identified hazards and risk exposures relating to traffic volume, type, environment, design and maintenance requiring control. Complete a risk assessment to prioritise and determine controls to be put in place to manage the risk exposure. All identified operational hazards must be controlled, and the controls incorporated in to road design and construction specifications and/ or plans.

Risk Control
Risk control is the process of determining and implementing appropriate measures to control risks. The main aim is to eliminate, where possible, any risk associated with the road design or construction. When a risk is identified as having a potential to cause a fatal incident, you are required to reduce the risk to as low as reasonably practicable. If the risk cannot be eliminated then controls will need to be put in place which makes the risk acceptable to continue the design or construction. Risk elimination or reduction is generally achieved by a combination of controls.

Some requirements or operational controls may have been determined during the risk identification of operational requirements associated with each type of vehicle or mobile equipment that will ultimately use the road. An example of this is braking distances that a particular vehicle is able to achieve and the height the operator is above the road will affect the safety factor to be considered in sight distances, line of sight, and related vertical curves.

In many cases risk elimination or reduction is generally achieved by a combination of several hierarchy of control options thereby managing the risk effectively The risk control categories listed in Table 2 provide guidance on some control measures available.

Table 2. – Examples of Risk Controls

It is important to ensure all affected personnel are notified within a suitable time frame of the risk and what controls are in place (short or long term). Any changes to the design, construction or maintenance of roads must be completed in accordance with Change Management. Roads designed to a pre-determined specification may not require the change management process as the risk controls are contained within the specification.

All risk assessment documentation and records must be retained for a period of 3 years, and be kept in an accessible location to facilitate review or for verification purposes.

Review of Control Measures
Control measures should be reviewed and improved, maintained, updated or replaced as necessary to ensure adequate control. Reviews should take place at regular intervals or as determined by the criticality indicated by the risk assessment record.

Selection, Training, Competency and Authorisation
Personnel conducting risk assessments on road design and traffic interactions must:
• have relevant operational experience (civil engineering, road maintenance)
• be assessed as competent to perform the risk assessment

Risk Assessment Training
Personnel designing roads and performing risk assessments on road designs and traffic interactions must have relevant operational experience. This may include qualifications in civil engineering and relevant demonstrable application of these skills. Personnel with relevant operational experience in the construction and maintenance of roads should be used when performing risk assessments regarding these categories of assessments.
Training and competency assessment systems shall be in place, that ensures:
• defined competency standards for personnel inspecting roads
• training and formal competency assessments
• the recording of all training undertaken and results of competency assessments
• regular re-assessments of competencies and retraining when required

Road Inspection Training
Competency standards must be established for personnel who inspect roads. All personnel required to inspect roads should be trained and competent in the following requirements:
• Recognition of road deterioration or failure. (Knowledge of road standards to measure against)
• Recognition and identification of potential hazards associated with the road construction, maintenance, or layout.
• Evaluation and control procedures for identified or potential hazards.
• Procedures related to road construction and maintenance.
• Safe work practices when interacting with traffic.
• Knowledge of work done while performing road construction and/or maintenance.

Training Register
Employers should keep records of all road inspection training including refresher courses. This should include maintaining a register of all staff who are trained in road inspection related training and courses, and the type of training they have received (course title & number). The register provides a means for identifying skill levels when assigning road inspection tasks.

Communication and Awareness
Changes to road design and/or road layout must be:
• documented and / or documents updated
• communicated to personnel who may be affected

Changes or modifications to road design and or road layout must be documented, or documents updated. The changes to and any relevant updated documents must be communicated to all affected personnel promptly. Documentation may include:
• Mine design plans.
• Drawings.
• Maps.
• Road maintenance procedures.
• Training material.
• Design specifications (civil / mining manuals)

Road hazards must be communicated to personnel who may be affected, this communication shall consider:
• road maintenance and repairs
• temporary changes to roads
• emergency situations
• breakdowns

Communication of road hazards
Communication should be provided in a form that all employees at the relevant workplace can understand, and in a form that is most appropriate for the hazard experienced. Some hazards that will require communication will need to reach a wider target audience (temporary changes) compared to others that may require only localised communication (breakdowns). Table 3 provides examples of hazards and methods suitable for communication. Methods should be developed so that employees, regardless of language or literacy levels, can be provided with information. This can be accomplished using verbal (safety meetings, radio) or visual (demarcations, warning signage) methods.

Table 3. – Examples of communication methods

Design, Purchase, Fabrication, Installation and Commissioning
Roads and intersections must be constructed to design specifications considering:
• intended purpose and life-span
• safe, efficient travel at normal operating speeds
• roads widths (to allow vehicles to pass safely in all conditions)
• road sidings, turn, u-turn , and parking area allowances
• stopping distance
• roads being completely free draining
• traffic control requirements for intersections (signage, bunds etc)
• demarcations and barriers for the segregation of traffic
• advisory signs designed and positioned 
The design specifications relating to roads must consider:
• Kep\men\555-Decree of mines article 92 (1), (2), (4)
• Kep\men\555-Decree of mines article 144 (1), (2)
• Kep\men\555-Decree of mines article 146

Intended purpose and lifespan
The intended purpose and lifespan of a road will determine the design and type of construction of the road. The physical characteristics and range of various vehicles using roads determine the main requirements of road design. The design of any road must take into consideration the largest or heaviest vehicles likely to use the road.
Types of Roads

Table 4. – Examples of types of roads
The design specifications for a road must address the following issues:
• Ample width for the vehicles using it (e.g. vehicles, low-boy, trucks etc.)
• Good sight distance for safety
• Long radius superelevated curves
• Lowest possible adverse grades / constant grade (avoid unnecessary grade changes)
• Good hard smooth running surface
• A completely free draining road surface
• Regular maintenance
• Built to suit possible future needs.

Safe and efficient travel at normal operating speeds

As far as is economically feasible, all geometric elements of roads should be designed to provide safe, efficient travel at normal operating speeds. The ability of a vehicle operator to see ahead a distance equal to or greater than the vehicle stopping distance is the primary consideration.

It is imperative that sight distance be sufficient to enable a vehicle travelling at a given speed to stop before reaching a hazard. The distance measured from the driver’s eye to the hazard ahead must always be equal to or exceed the required vehicle stopping distance. The design of the road must address the effect of speed, slope, and vehicle weight on stopping distance, as well as design criteria for vertical and horizontal alignment.

Figure 1 – Sight distance / stopping distance relationship

Sight distance on horizontal curves, and at intersections, can often be improved by minor slope flattening, selective clearing or both. If such work is done, the actual sight distance must be measured, the maximum safe speed determined, and the location signed and marked accordingly.

In the design of roads, it is important that horizontal and vertical alignments compliment each other. Poorly designed combinations can accentuate deficiencies and produce unexpected hazards. Although the alternatives available for a road are often limited, it is prudent to consider the following potential problem conditions:
• Avoid introducing sharp horizontal curvature at or near the crest of a hill. If a curve is necessary, start it in advance of the vertical curve.
• Avoid sharp horizontal curves near the bottom of hills or after a sustained down grade.
• Design sections of haul road where passing is expected with long tangents and constant grades.
• Avoid intersections near the crest of vertical curves and at sharp horizontal curvatures.

Road widths
No feature of a road has a greater influence on the safety and comfort of driving than the width and condition of the surface. Narrower lanes tend restrict the capacity of a road up to 50% and make users operate their vehicles closer to each other laterally than they would normally desire. In addition to the capacity effect, the resultant erratic operation has an undesirable effect on driver comfort and can influence accident rates.

Road widths must be increased on sharp curves, on embankments, in cuttings, and where other special considerations may exist such as occasional shovel movements, etc. Pavement width should however not be increased unnecessarily and should not be in excess of 3m more than the minimum width. For haul roads, currently at the CAT 789 is the largest truck in use and it has an overall width of 7.7m. As such the single lane width of a road is 15.5m while the two lane width of a road is 27.0m.

“IN PIT” Road

Figure 2 – Road width example

For civil road constructions, a lane width of 3.6m is desirable, although 3.3m widths are acceptable. For low speed roads, a lane width of 3.0m is acceptable, and for low volume roads in rural and residential areas, lane widths of 2.7m are acceptable. A shoulder is a portion of roadway aligned with and next to a road, it should be a minimum of 0.6m, and be stabilised, paved, or constructed in a similar fashion to the road. Shoulders on roads contribute to the overall safety and lifespan by providing:
• Accommodation for stopped vehicles
• Room for emergency vehicle use
• Space is provided to escape potential accidents or minimise the severity
• Sight distances are improved
• Space is provided for maintenance operations
• Space is provided for bus stops etc (non haul-roads)
• Space is provided for pedestrian and bicycle use (non haul-roads)
• Lateral and structural support of sub- base, base, and surface courses of the road

Road sidings, turning and parking areas
Consideration must be given to providing the following on roads:

Table 5. – Examples of road design considerations
Stopping distances
From a safety standpoint, haul road grades must be designed to accommodate the braking capabilities of vehicles having the least braking potential. The stopping distance curve - Figure 2 depicts stopping distances computed for various grades and speeds in a particular weight category. As the loaded weight of the CAT 789 is 318,000 kg and the CAT 785 is 250,000 kg, Figure 2 should be used for all haul roads.
For civil roads, stopping distances are illustrated in the following table:

Table 6. – Examples civil road stopping distances

Figure 3 – Example of Stopping distance characteristics

Good drainage is absolutely critical to the establishment of a stable roadway. In order to avoid problems it is necessary that a roadway be constructed so that it is completely free draining. Water should not be allowed to either pond or build up on either the surface of a road or adjacent to a road pavement. If such ponding does occur it is likely to get into or under the pavement and weaken the pavement or sub grade material. If this happens, pavement movement and distortion will be accentuated.

It is essential that a road surface be free draining and that no water is able to pond on the road surface. If an area is found where ponding can occur the road surface will need to be reworked in order to ensure that it is free draining.

Since the highest amount of potential traffic conflict occurs at intersections, the design for a road and any intersection, should attempt to reduce the hazardous potential while at the same time maintain an acceptable traffic flow.

Figure 4 – Example haul road intersection plans

Figure 5 – Example civil road intersection plans

Intersection should be designed to incorporate:
• Intersection angles of greater than 70 degrees in order to improve lines and angles of sight. Intersection angle of closer to 90 degrees promotes ease of vision along the axes of the road where the risk of collision is greatest.
• In mining areas, bund height reduced to 1 metre within 75 metres of the intersection to improve lines of sight. Bunding should incorporate regular short breaks to help with road drainage. The intersection is designed to be free-draining in order to reduce the chance of water collecting or ponding.
• Appropriate warning signage is placed well before the intersection, this includes stop and give way signs.
• Appropriate information signage is placed well before the intersection; this includes road names and destinations.

Segregation of traffic
The purpose of segregation is to provide an effective barrier or separation from an identified hazard. Such hazards include any sharp or sudden change or drop off in ground level of greater than 1m, or any other possible traffic concerns such as oncoming traffic, a drainage culvert, body of water, etc.

Figure 6 – Example acceptable intersection angle

Table 1. Examples of types of Bunds

Signage – Mining areas
Each haul road exhibits its own peculiarities and requires varying signage. Proper care must be taken to ensure that all signs installed are at a height and location that is within the eyesight of all drivers operating vehicles likely to be travelling on a given road. Signs are to be in accordance with KPC standards.

Speed limit signs should be posted on segments of the haul road alignment that require slower than normal rates of travel to safely negotiate a hazardous condition. Such locations would precede:
• A long descending haul road or pit ramp,
• Changes in descending haul road grades.
• Entrances to congested areas.
• Unusual road alignments.
• Areas subject to material spills or other frequent obstructions.

From a production viewpoint, it is best to avoid interruptions in haul cycle; however, this may not be compatible with road safety. Although vehicle stopping points along a road should be kept to a minimum, they must be considered necessary for safety in some cases.

Areas where the placement of stop signs should definitely be considered are as follows:
• Any secondary access road at the point it intersects with a main haul road;
• Intersections where sight distance does not exceed vehicle stopping distance for the recommended speed of travel
• Haul road intersections with public roads.

Curve and intersection warning signs provide warning of upcoming situations where a driver should exercise caution. These signs are best restricted to positions in advance of the most critical curves and heavily travelled intersections.

Signage – Non-mining areas
As with haul roads, civil roads exhibit their own peculiarities and varying signage requirements. Proper care must be taken to ensure that all signs are installed are at a height and location that is within the eyesight of all drivers operating vehicles likely to be travelling on a given road. Signs are to be in accordance with KPC
standards. GIVE WAY or STOP signs may be erected to control traffic at intersections in areas where it is necessary to assign, modify, or reinforce vehicle priorities. They must be provided at:
• All intersections with four or more legs in order to assign vehicle priorities
• At any three-way intersections where the layout is such that it is not clear how or whether the Tjunction rule would operate, for example at a Y-junction
• Unsignalized exits from local areas to arterial roads.

STOP signs shall be provided instead of GIVE WAY signs on any controlled approach where intersection sight distance is sub-standard, this would mean that the minor road traffic sight distance is less than the stopping distance of vehicles on the major road.

A STOP sign is required when for minor road traffic the sight distance (Y) in either direction along the major or uncontrolled road as shown in Figure 7 is LESS than the stopping distance given for the corresponding major road speed.

A history of accidents may prompt requests for STOP signs. Where intersection sight distances are adequate,
it is most likely that accidents can be reduced more effectively by other means. Figure 6 – Example acceptable intersection angle.

Location and Erection of Signs
The location and erection of signs is covered by the Australian Standard AS 1742, Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices.
Certain basic considerations govern the siting of signs, these are:
• The sign should be placed so that the driver has adequate time to perceive and react to its message and to take the appropriate action required.
• The sign should be located so that it is within the driver’s normal cone of vision when approaching. The driver should not have to turn his head.
• The sign should have a good initial target value and be so placed that the background does not render it inconspicuous.
• The sign should normally be placed on the left side of the road or in special circumstances on centre bunding.
• To reduce undesirable direct reflection at night all signs should be rotated away from the direction of travel by about 5 degrees.
• Warning signs should be located approximately 75 - 100m in advance of a hazard.
• Where powerlines pass over a road then signage indicating clearance height shall be provided.
For a copy of KEP/men/555 – Decree of Mines Article 92 / 144 / 146, refer to Appendix 2.

Work Method and Condition Control
Specific procedures must be established to control hazards related to traffic flow during:
• road maintenance
• equipment breakdowns

Procedures must be developed to ensure the safety of maintenance personnel and road users during road maintenance operations. Special attention must be given to the safety of maintenance personnel working where traffic moves past or around them. Use restrictive speed and warning signs, barricades, and flagmen to control traffic and lessen the danger to maintenance personnel.

Maintenance personnel must be aware to avoid stepping into the travelled way and to be continually alert to passing traffic. Maintenance vehicles operating in or on the edge of the roadway must be conspicuously marked with orange flags, flashing orange lights, or similar devices. The same considerations should be paid to developing procedures aimed at controlling hazards associated with equipment breakdowns.

The road maintenance program must include:
• schedules for conducting maintenance
• requirements for maintenance and repair work 
• the reporting of progress against the schedule

Regardless of how meticulously a road is planned and constructed, its surface is bound to deform with the constant pounding of vehicles and mobile equipment. Although deterioration may be controlled to a great extent by the type of surface material used, a road maintenance schedule is an essential part of the maintaining road safety. Dust, potholes, ruts, depressions, bumps, and other poor surface conditions if left uncorrected will impede vehicle control and will have a big impact on safety, maintenance, and operating costs.

Surface deterioration of the roads is caused in varying degrees by the following actions:
• Wheel rutting
• Spillage of product or overburden material
• Heavy rain washing away the fines and hence unravelling the surface texture
• Heavy rain saturating and softening material.
• Heavy rain flooding the pavement and causing soft spots and sub grade failure
• Damage by tracked equipment

Maintenance is the routine prevention and correction of normal damage and deterioration (from use and the elements) to keep road surfaces and related infrastructure in usable condition. Repair is that work necessary (other than maintenance) to correct damage caused by abnormal use, accidents, and weather. Repair includes the resurfacing of a road when maintenance can no longer accomplish its purpose.

The purpose of all maintenance and repair activities is to keep roads or other related infrastructure in as usable and as safe a condition as the situation permits. Prompt and adequate maintenance is important. Once surface deterioration or destruction has started, it can proceed very rapidly. Postponing minor maintenance jobs can result in the development of major repair jobs involving the sub-grade, base course, and surface.

Use the following recommendations when performing maintenance and repair work:
• Ensure that maintenance and repair activities interfere as little as possible with the normal flow of traffic. Whenever feasible, plan and perform maintenance and repair activities to permit at least partial use of the road. When it is necessary to close the road to all traffic, select alternative roads or perform repair work at night or during periods of reduced activity. Reopen the road as soon as practicable.
• Remedy the cause before repairing the problem. For example, surface repairs made on a defective sub grade are wasted. All maintenance and repair jobs should include an investigation to find the cause of the damage or deterioration. To ignore the cause is to invite the prompt reappearance of damage. Ignore the cause only when making temporary repairs to meet immediate, minimum needs under urgent conditions.
• Maintain and repair existing surfaces as closely as possible to the original construction in strength, appearance, and texture. Spot strengthening may create differences in wear and traffic impact that can harm adjoining surfaces. Also, uniformity simplifies maintenance and repair operations.
• Prioritize the needed repairs based on the traffic volume, and the hazards that result from complete failure of the road. For example, roads used for haulage operations support take priority over less essential facilities. One pothole in a heavily used road that is in otherwise excellent condition takes priority over repairs to less heavily used roads in poor condition.

Maintenance Program
Establishing a maintenance program for all roads is important, it ensures that roads are fit for purpose when required. Repair and maintenance programs should specify:
• What roads require maintenance
• Where this maintenance is required
• The nature of the maintenance required
• The frequency of maintenance
• Who is responsible for maintaining repair and maintenance programs and
• How hazards and defects will be corrected

Steps to Implementing a Maintenance Program

Table 1. Steps to implement a maintenance program

Table 9. – Recommended road maintenance schedule

The duties of maintenance patrols are as follows:
• Clean out drainage facilities, remove vegetation that will impact on road safety.
• Repair minor washouts and potholes.
• Maintain the road surface; for example, eliminate ruts, potholes, and washboards.
• Maintain road shoulders and ditches.
• Make frequent, thorough inspections of road conditions, and report to supervisors any need for repair work more significant than the patrol is equipped or manned to handle.

Emergency Controls
In mining areas, emergency pickup points must be signposted and recorded on site maps. Due to continual changes to the layout of mining areas, emergency pickup points are provided for emergency services crews. The emergency services team are required to meet at these agreed pickup points and wait to be escorted to the relevant area within the mine. The escort will have appropriate knowledge of the layout of the mine and facilitate the rapid and effective deployment of the emergency services team and equipment.
For an example of a map highlighting the emergency pickup points refer to Appendix 3.

Monitoring, Inspections and Audits
A road inspection process must be developed to ensure roads are maintained to design specifications. These inspections must be performed by a competent person according to the following frequencies:
• Mining area roads – weekly and/or after inclement weather
• Non-mining area roads - monthly

The purpose of road inspections is to detect early evidence of defects before actual failure occurs. Frequent inspections and effective follow-up procedures prevent minor defects from becoming major repair jobs. Inspect surface and drainage systems carefully during wet seasons and after heavy storms.

Inspection Program
It is essential that roads are maintained correctly with inspections and correct examination at regular intervals, all inspections should be carried out by a competent person.
• Identify inspection requirements (road design specifications and operational experience)
• Create checklist for each road type
• Develop a plan for inspections
• Establish schedule (computer, record book, etc)
• Using schedule initiate inspection
• Plan required inspections into the daily or weekly work schedule, to ensure it is completed by due date.
• Assign the inspection to a competent person and ensure appropriate resources are available to carry out the inspections.
• Perform the inspection using the approved checklist in mine lease areas and mining operations.
• All results need to be recorded on the inspection checklist, including any non conformances.
• Any non conformances need to be included into the corrective action process.
• At the completion of the inspection - close out the work order, or inspection register and up date records.

Inspection System
Check that the inspection system considers and maintains a record of the following:
• Road identification • Repairs required and completed
• Persons authorised to conduct inspections • Means of identifying the currency of the roads
• Specific inspection checklists • Required inspection time frames
• Completed inspections • Persons authorised to carryout repairs
• Faults found

Inspection Checklist
An inspection checklist should be based on the manufacturer’s specifications and any site operation experience. The inspection checklists should include items such as:
• Physical damage • Deterioration
• Wear • Drainage
• Corrosion/ erosion • Signage
For an example of a road inspection checklist refer to Appendix 4.
For a examples of road inspection checklist considerations refer to Appendix 5.

Surface Inspection
Surface defects can usually be attributed to excessive loads, inferior surfacing material, poor sub grade or base conditions, inadequate drainage, or a combination of these conditions. Surface inspections should include a complete inventory of the current pavement defects. Careful investigation of the causes of the defects will allow for timely maintenance to prevent the pavement defects from requiring major repair.

Table 10. – Examples of sealed road surface defects

Drainage Inspection
Ensure that all drainage channels and structures are unobstructed. Check culverts and drainage lines for structural damage. Inspect check dams for debris and excessive erosion. Investigate water ponding on or adjacent to surfaced areas. Inspect the system drainage during or after every storm. Inspect subsurface drains at least twice a year.

Reporting Assessment and Corrective Actions
Hazards or defects identified on roads and related infrastructure must be reported, assessed, corrected, and include :
• actions required to close roads to traffic if required
• Incidents with a fatality potential will require the General Manager to lead an investigation
• the recording of actions taken to correct the hazard or defect

Identifying Hazards
Hazards or defects maybe identified with roads when performing inspections, carrying out maintenance or using vehicles or equipment. With the understanding that hazards or defects can be identified at various times and locations a system needs to be developed which can ensure these can be reported promptly and assessed accurately.

Reporting the Hazard or Defect
All persons are required to report any hazard or defect they find, appropriate reports for collecting defect information can be:
• Hazard report.
• Road maintenance report.
• Inspection checklist.
• Two-way radio to supervisor
If the defect renders the road unsafe, it must be appropriately closed as soon as possible. If the full implications of the defect are unknown, then seek advice from your immediate supervisor. Then decide on appropriate further action

Assessing and Action
The process developed for correcting the problem must ensure:
• It is recorded in maintenance records
• Follows best practice requirements
• Is completed by competent personnel (Mine services for mining areas, Civil works for non-mining areas)
• Is certified for use by a competent person prior to being used again

Improvements to the roadway surface may result in increased operating speeds.
Geometrics should be examined and modified, if necessary, to maintain an acceptable level of operational safety.
Horizontal and vertical curvature and stopping sight distance are directly related to the speed of vehicles and major deviations from the desirable design may cause serious problems. These geometric characteristics can be the most difficult and costly to improve. Although every sight distance restriction can create a potential hazard, improvement on that basis alone may not be practical on every road.

If curvature is shown to be the cause of numerous accidents, some corrective action should be taken. This corrective action can range from some form of positive guidance, which may include placement of additional warning signs and markings, to reconstruction.

Alignment improvements should be undertaken when accident experience is high, and if previously installed warning signs, markings, or other devices have not proven effective. In many cases, under mine and civil conditions, existing horizontal and vertical alignments may be retained if a careful analysis indicates they can be adequately signed and marked.

Appendix 1 - Developing standards of competence
Competency requirements for inspecting roads are developed to ensure that personnel performing road inspections are adequately qualified, capable, and have the ability to perform all required tasks in a safe manner including hazardous tasks.

Appendix 2 – Decree of the Minister of mines and energy
NUMBER : 555.K/26/M.PE/1995 ON
Chapter IV
Part One
Structures, Buildings, Access Ways and Egress
Article 92
(1) Every structure and building at the mining operation shall be built sufficiently strong and sturdy and must be maintained to ensure continued safety.
(2) A safe access way shall be provided to every work site in or at any structure or building.
(3) When any part of a structure or building such as the roof cannot support the weight of any worker carrying out maintenance, conspicuous warning signs shall be installed. A platform appropriate for use as a safe path shall be provided.
(4) When the traffic way or access way is obstructed by obstacles such as conveyors or pipelines, an appropriate and permanent means of traversing such obstacles shall be provided.
Article 144
Safe Working Procedures
(1) The Technical Mine Manager shall regulate traffic at the mine and install the necessary traffic signs to inform drivers of:
a. the direction of traffic;
b. speed limits;
c. vehicle height limits;
d. inclines and descents;
e. parking and non parking areas and other matters related to the safety of the system of transport.
(2) During loading and unloading work and work involving tipping of loads, road ways shall be one way.
(3) Drivers may overtake other vehicles along designated roads.
(4) Mine workers permitted to walk or to be along any transport road or at any loading or unloading site shall wear brightly coloured fluorescent coats.
Article 146
Transport Rules
(1) At every mine the Technical Mine Manager shall determine Transport Rules and the installation of traffic signs regarding the following transport operating procedures :
a. methods for the safe use of vehicles;
b. traffic direction, speed limits, load limits;
c. hazardous or unusual loads;
d. vehicle service and towing or pushing vehicles;
e. the distance between vehicles on transport roads;
f. loading and unloading;
g. rules for pedestrians;
h. tire handling;
i. passengers and the transportation of workers and
j. training and driving permits.
(2) Transport Rules must be available to the Mine Inspector. The Chief Mine Inspector has the authority to make changes to any Transport Rule if he considers it necessary for the safety of the operation.

Appendix 4 – Example of Road Inspection Checklist

Appendix 5 – Example of Road Inspection Considerations
1. For 789 trucks the minimum acceptable width for a single lane road is twice the truck width or 15.5m. Critical areas to watch where a road may be below standard is where a dual lane road changes into a road divided by a centre bund. Such locations are at intersections.
2. Again for 789 trucks the minimum acceptable width for a dual lane road with two way traffic is 3.5 times the truck width or 27.0m. This should be 27.0m of available road running surface.
3. All bends should be superelevated with the road surface falling for the full width of the road to the inside edge of the bend.
4. The road surface should not have any depressions that retain or pond water. The retention of water will lead to deterioration of the road surface and road conditions. All sections of road (other than superelevated bends) should have a uniform crossfall of 3%. The direction of the crossfall on a straight road being determined by drainage requirements.
5. The retention or ponding of water near the side of a road will lead to the eventual deterioration of the road.
6. Restrictions in sight distance can create a potentially hazardous situation which could result in an accident. Areas to check are bends or crests in the road or at intersections with other roads. The question to ask is whether a 789 truck would have enough time to identify a hazard in its path and stop or react accordingly.
7. A road that enters an intersection at an angle of less than 70 degrees will have at least one lane of traffic with restricted visibility.
8. If the right of way of traffic has not been clearly signposted the potential for an accident is increased. With our constantly changing traffic requirements it is essential that this is reviewed regularly.
9. Bunds at and approaching an intersection need to be lowered to 1m in height to ensure that light vehicles can be seen by other traffic as well as also being able to see other vehicles themselves.
10. Signposting and guideposting needs to be regularly reviewed. As all pit areas are constantly changing it is suggested that this should be done at least once a month. Note the height of guideposts should be 3.5m and they should be spaced at 50m intervals.
11. Again this will require regular maintenance to ensure an acceptable standard is achieved. The main emphasis being reflective surfaces.
12. Any area where the potential exists to cause a vehicle to rollover will require the construction of a protective bund. As a rule of thumb a drop of more than 1m is considered unacceptable.
13. All bunding (except at intersections and active dump faces) should be three quarter wheel height. For main haul roads where 789 trucks may travel all bunding should be 2.4m.